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1 小児の咳止めの科学的根拠

  1. Taylor JA, et al. Efficacy of cough suppressants in children. J Pediatr. 1993;122:799–802. PMID: 8496765
  2. Smith SM, et al. Over-the-counter(OTC)medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014:CD001831. PMID: 25420096
  3. Gardiner SJ, et al. Codeine versus placebo for chronic cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2016;7:CD011914. PMID: 27405706
  4. Wang K, et al. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014:CD003257. PMID: 25243777
  5. Kaiser SV, et al. National patterns of codeine prescriptions for children in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e1139-e1147. PMID: 24753533
  6. Prows CA, et al. Codeine-related adverse drug reactions in children following tonsillectomy: a prospective study. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:1242–1250. PMID: 24122716
  7. Tobias JD, et al. Codeine: Time to Say “No”. Pediatrics. 2016;138:e20162396. PMID: 27647717
  8. Lam J, et al. Central nervous system depression of neonates breastfed by mothers receiving oxycodone for postpartum analgesia. J Pediatr. 2012;160:33–37. PMID: 21880331
  9. Paul IM, et al. Effect of dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and placebo on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e85-e90. PMID: 15231978
  10. Korppi M, et al. Antitussives in the treatment of acute transient cough in children. Acta Paediatr Scand.1991;80:969–971. PMID: 1755308
  11. Paul IM, et al. Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:1140–1146. PMID: 18056558
  12. Bhattacharya M, et al. To compare the effect of dextromethorphan, promethazine and placebo on nocturnal cough in children aged 1-12 y with upper respiratory infections: a randomized controlled trial. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:891–895. PMID: 23592248
  13. Takai H, et al. A pediatric case of anaphylactic shock induced by tipepidine hibenzate(Asverin). Asia Pac Allergy. 2018;8:e37. PMID: 30402404
  14. Mochizuki E, et al. Anaphylaxis caused by tipepidine hibenzate, a central antitussive drug. Respirol Case Rep. 2015;3:3–5. PMID: 25802739
  15. Iwabuchi C, et al. Fixed drug eruption induced by tipepidine hibenzate. J Dermatol. 2010;37:502–503. PMID: 20536661
  16. Imai Y, et al. Tipepidine hibenzate intoxication. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:779–781. PMID: 21955016
  17. Kowa Y, et al. Safety evaluation tests of tipepidine hibenzate(Asverin H). Asian Med J. 1974;17:21–35.
  18. Suzuki M, et al. Effect of the combined use of tipepidine(Asverin)and trimetoquinol(Inolin)for cough in so called “common cold”. Japanese Arch Intern Med. 1974;21:285–289.
  19. 西村龍夫, 他. 急性咳嗽を主訴とする小児の上気道炎患者へのチペピジンヒベンズ酸塩の効果. 外来小児科 2019;22:124–132.
  20. Shadkam MN, et al. A comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine on nightly cough and sleep quality in children and their parents. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:787–793. PMID: 20618098
  21. Ahmadi M, et al. Comparison of the effect of honey and diphenhydramine on cough alleviation in 2-5-year-old children with viral upper respiratory tract infection. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci. 2013;15:8–13.
  22. Cohen HA, et al. Effect of honey on nocturnal cough and sleep quality: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics. 2012;130:465–471. PMID: 22869830
  23. Waris A, et al. Randomised double blind study to compare effectiveness of honey, salbutamol and placebo in treatment of cough in children with common cold. East Afr Med J. 2014;91:50–56. PMID: 26859020
  24. Oduwole O, et al. Honey for acute cough in children. Evid Based Child Health. 2014;9:3. PMID: 25404607
  25. Skypala IJ. Food-induced anaphylaxis: Role of hidden allergens and cofactors. Front Immunol. 2019;10:673. PMID: 31001275
  26. American Academy of Pediatrics(AAP). Botulism and Infant Botulism. IN Red Book. 2018.
  27. Jackson L, et al. Infant Botulism in the Very Young Neonate: A Case Series. AJP Rep. 2017;7:e163–e166. PMID: 28765793
  28. Carrillo-Marquez MA. Botulism. Pediatr Rev. 2016;37:183–192. PMID: 27139326

2 小児の気道感染症と去痰薬の科学的根拠

  1. Smelt GJ, et al. The effect of Mucodyne on nasal clearance in healthy adults. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1987;12:7–10. PMID: 3829440
  2. Oduwole O, et al. Honey for acute cough in children. Evid Based Child Health. 2014;9:3. PMID: 25404607
  3. Cohen HA, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a polysaccharide-resin-honey based cough syrup as compared to carbocysteine syrup for children with colds: a randomized, single-blinded, multicenter study. World J Pediatr. 2017;13:27–33. PMID: 27457790
  4. Chalumeau M, Duijvestijn YC. Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2013:CD003124. PMID: 23728642
  5. Nakayama Y, et al. Carbocysteine syrup in pediatrics: a clinical trial. Japanese J Pediatr. 1977;10:1823.
  6. Zanini A, Dodesni G. Lisomucil in pediatrics. Clin Eur. 1974;13:1–12.
  7. Malka M, et al. Carbocysteine in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children. Med Infant. 1990;97:687–692.
  8. Mallet P, et al. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: A national survey. PLoS One. 2011;6:e22792. PMID: 21818391
  9. Principi N, et al. Possibility of interaction among antibiotics and mucolytics in children. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1986;6:369–372. PMID: 3781700
  10. Ratjen F, et al. A double-blind placebo controlled trial with oral ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine for mucolytic treatment in cystic fibrosis. Eur J Pediatr. 1985;144:374–378. PMID: 3908111
  11. Chang CC, et al. Over-the-counter(OTC)medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014:CD006088. PMID: 24615334
  12. Chenot JF, et al. Efficacy of Ambroxol lozenges for pharyngitis: a meta-analysis. BMC Fam Pract. 2014;15:45. PMID: 24621446
  13. Monzón S, et al. Ambroxol-induced systemic contact dermatitis confirmed by positive patch test. Allergol Immunopathol(Madr). 2009;37:167–168. PMID: 19769851
  14. Fujimoto N, et al. Photosensitivity with eosinophilia due to ambroxol and UVB. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:110–113. PMID: 19207386

Lecture 2 仮説を立て,文献を検索する

  1. Stroup DF, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology(MOOSE)group. JAMA. 2000;283:2008–2012. PMID: 10789670
  2. Moher D, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols(PRISMA-P)2015 statement. Syst Rev. 2015; 4:1. PMID: 25554246

3 抗ヒスタミン薬の科学的根拠

  1. Yanai K, et al. The clinical pharmacology of non-sedating antihistamines. Pharmacol Ther. 2017;178: 148–156. PMID: 28457804
  2. Hugenin M, et al. Astemizole in the treatment of acute rhinopharyngitis(common cold). A double-blind study in pediatrics. Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1988;108:961–966. PMID: 2905068
  3. Sakchainanont B, et al. Effectiveness of antihistamines in common cold. J Med Assoc Thai. 1990;73:96–101. PMID: 1972174
  4. De Sutter AI, et al. Antihistamines for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015:CD009345. PMID: 26615034
  5. Clemens CJ, et al. Is an antihistamine-decongestant combination effective in temporarily relieving symptoms of the common cold in preschool children? J Pediatr. 1997;130:463–466. PMID: 9063425
  6. Hutton N, et al. Effectiveness of an antihistamine-decongestant combination for young children with the common cold: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr. 1991;118:125–130. PMID: 1670783
  7. Paul IM, et al. Effect of dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and placebo on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e85-e90. PMID: 15231978
  8. Shadkam MN, et al. A comparison of the effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine on nightly cough and sleep quality in children and their parents. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:787–793. PMID: 20618098
  9. Griffin G, Flynn CA. Antihistamines and/or decongestants for otitis media with effusion(OME)in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011:CD003423. PMID: 21901683
  10. Choung YH, et al. Management for the children with otitis media with effusion in the tertiary hospital. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;1:201–205. PMID: 19434268
  11. Dusdieker LB, et al. The long-term outcome of nonsuppurative otitis media with effusion. Clin Pediatr(Phila). 1985;24:181–186. PMID: 3884218
  12. Edström S, et al. Secretory Otitis media. Aspects on treatment and control. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1977;39:68–73. PMID: 333341
  13. Cantekin EI, et al. Lack of efficacy of a decongestant-antihistamine combination for otitis media with effusion(“secretory” otitis media)in children. Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. N Engl J Med. 1983;308:297–301. PMID: 6337322
  14. Cantekin EI, et al. Antimicrobial therapy for otitis media with effusion(‘secretory’ otitis media). JAMA. 1991;266:3309-3317. PMID: 1683673
  15. Haugeto OK, et al. Secretory otitis media, oral decongestant and antihistamine. J Otolaryngol. 1981;10:359–362. PMID: 7199092
  16. Saunte C. Clinical trial with Lunerin mixture and Lunerin mite in children with secretory otitis media. J Int Med Res. 1978;6:50–55. PMID: 342302
  17. Yokoyama H. The role of central histaminergic neuron system as an anticonvulsive mechanism in developing brain. Brain Dev. 2001;23:542–547. PMID: 11701252
  18. Haruyama W, et al. The relationship between drug treatment and the clinical characteristics of febrile seizures. World J Pediatr. 2008;4:202–205. PMID: 18822929
  19. Takano T, et al. Seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines in febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42:277–279. PMID: 20304332
  20. Miyata I, et al. Seizure-modifying potential of histamine H 1 antagonists: a clinical observation. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:706–708. PMID: 21261789
  21. Zolaly MA. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:277–281. PMID: 22505826
  22. Kimura T, et al. Sedating antihistamines extend the duration of febrile convulsion. No to hattatsu. 2014; 46:45–46. PMID: 24620431
  23. Yonemoto K, et al. Optimal Doses of H1 Antihistamines Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Febrile Convulsions in Children. Pediatr Neurol. 2018;87:42–47. PMID: 30174243
  24. Takasu M, et al. The effects of antihistamines on the semiology of febrile seizures. Brain Dev. 2019;41:72–76. PMID: 30064732
  25. Sugitate R, et al. The effects of antihistamine on the duration of the febrile seizure: A single center study with a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Dev. 2019;42:103-112. PMID: 31677915

Lecture 3 異質性と均質性

  1. Law MR, et al. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ. 1994;308:367–372. PMID: 8043072
  2. Egger M, et al(eds). Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta Analysis in Context, Second Edition. BMJ Publishing Group, 2001

4 小児の咽頭炎とトラネキサム酸,咳と気管支拡張薬・ヴェポラッブ®の科学的根拠

  1. 鳥羽 剛. 小児のかぜ症候群に対するトラネキサム酸含有かぜ薬 K-CWの臨床効果の検討. 薬理と治療. 1990;18:821-830.
  2. 神崎 仁,他.二重盲検法による扁桃炎・咽喉頭炎に対するK-ATの臨床評価. 薬理と治療. 1990;18:773–787.
  3. 宮城 平,広戸幾一郎.咽喉頭・口腔疾患におけるTranexamic acid(Transamin®)の使用経験−二重盲検法による−.臨床と研究. 1969;46:243–245.
  4. 斎藤 寛,他.耳鼻咽喉科領域におけるTransaminの臨床効果について—Double Blind Methodによる. 耳鼻咽喉科. 1969;41:455–460.
  5. Bernard DW, et al. Is oral albuterol effective for acute cough in non-asthmatic children? Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:465–467. PMID: 10342550
  6. Becker LA, et al. Beta2-agonists for acute cough or a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015:CD001726. PMID: 26333656
  7. Korppi M, et al. Antitussives in the treatment of acute transient cough in children. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991;80:969–971. PMID: 1755308
  8. Paul IM, et al. Vapor rub, petrolatum, and no treatment for children with nocturnal cough and cold symptoms. Pediatrics. 2010;126:1092–1099. PMID: 21059712
  9. Berger H, et al. Effect of vaporub and petrolatum on skin and rectal temperature in children with acute bronchitis. J Int Med Res. 1978;6:487–490. PMID: 720738
  10. Kenia P, et al. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:532–537. PMID: 18435479
  11. Abanses JC, et al. Vicks VapoRub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea. Chest. 2009;135:143–148. PMID: 19136404
  12. Paul IM. Vicks VapoRub study: incomplete case report and misleading publicity. Chest. 2009;136:650; author reply 650-651. PMID: 19666773

5 解熱薬(主にアセトアミノフェン)の科学的根拠

  1. Brewer EJ Jr. A comparative evaluation of indomethacin, acetaminophen and placebo as antipyretic agents in children. Arthritis Rheum. 1968;11:645–651. PMID: 4878632
  2. Kauffman RE, et al. Antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen vs acetaminophen. Am J Dis Child. 1992;146:622-625. PMID: 1621668
  3. Wilson JT, et al. Single-dose, placebo-controlled comparative study of ibuprofen and acetaminophen antipyresis in children. J Pediatr. 1991;119:803–811. PMID: 1941390
  4. Steele RW, et al. Evaluation of sponging and of oral antipyretic therapy to reduce fever. J Pediatr. 1970;77:824–829. PMID: 5504074
  5. Aksoylar S, et al. Evaluation of sponging and antipyretic medication to reduce body temperature in febrile children. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1997;39:215-217. PMID: 9141257
  6. Friedman AD, Barton LL. Efficacy of sponging vs acetaminophen for reduction of fever. Sponging Study Group. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1990;6:6–7. PMID: 2320489
  7. Kinmonth AL, et al. Management of feverish children at home. BMJ. 1992;305:1134–1136. PMID: 1463951
  8. Brandts CH, et al. Effect of paracetamol on parasite clearance time in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet. 1997;350:704–709. PMID: 9291905
  9. Doran TF, et al. Acetaminophen: more harm than good for chickenpox? J Pediatr. 1989;114:1045–1048. PMID: 2656959
  10. Kramer MS, et al. Risks and benefits of paracetamol antipyresis in young children with fever of presumed viral origin. Lancet. 1991; 337:591–594. PMID: 1671951
  11. Jefferies S, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of regular paracetamol on influenza infection. Respirology. 2016;21:370–377. PMID: 26638130
  12. Slapak I, et al. Efficacy of isotonic nasal wash(seawater)in the treatment and prevention of rhinitis in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:67–74. PMID: 18209140
  13. Murata S, et al. Acetaminophen and febrile seizure recurrences during the same fever episode. Pediatrics. 2018;142:e20181009. PMID: 30297499
  14. Schnaiderman D, et al. Antipyretic effectiveness of acetaminophen in febrile seizures: ongoing prophylaxis versus sporadic usage. Eur J Pediatr. 1993;152:747–749. PMID: 8223808

Lecture 5 固定効果とランダム効果

  1. Poole C, Greenland S. Random-effects meta-analyses are not always conservative. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:469–475. PMID: 10472946

6 整腸剤(プロバイオティクス)と小児の下痢の科学的根拠

  1. Schnadower D, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:2002–2014. PMID: 30462938
  2. Allen SJ, et al. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010:CD003048. PMID: 21069673
  3. Szajewska H, et al. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus GG for treating acute gastroenteritis in children—updated analysis of randomised controlled trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;38: 467–476. PMID: 23841880
  4. Feizizadeh S, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute diarrhea. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e176–e191. PMID: 24958586
  5. Vesikari T, et al. Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human–bovine(WC3)reassortant rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:23–33. PMID: 16394299
  6. Freedman SB, et al. Multicenter trial of a combination probiotic for children with gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:2015–2026. PMID: 30462939
  7. Hong Chau TT, et al. A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea in Vietnamese Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37:35–42. PMID: 28787388
  8. Park MS, et al. The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection. Nutrients. 2017;9:E887. PMID: 28813007
  9. Bernaola Aponte G, et al. Probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013:CD007401. PMID: 23963712
  10. Pashapour N, Iou SG. Evaluation of yogurt effect on acute diarrhea in 6-24-month-old hospitalized infants. Turk J Pediatr. 2006;48:115–118. PMID: 16848109
  11. Boudraa G, et al. Effect of feeding yogurt versus milk in children with acute diarrhea and carbohydrate malabsorption. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;33:307–313. PMID: 11593127
  12. Bhatnagar S, et al. Efficacy of milk versus yogurt offered as part of a mixed diet in acute noncholera diarrhea among malnourished children. J Pediatr. 1998;132:999–1003. PMID: 9627593
  13. Rafeey M, et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt and supplement in children with acute diarrhea a clinical trial. Res J Med Sci. 2008;2:13–18.
  14. Patro-Gołab B, et al. Yogurt for treating acute gastroenteritis in children: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2015;34:818–824. PMID: 25267702
  15. Doron S, Snydman DR. Risk and safety of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:S129–S134. PMID: 25922398
  16. Salminen MK, et al. Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1155-1160. PMID: 12410474
  17. Bartlett JG. Review of infectious disease literature: Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. Rhamnosus GG. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 2004;12:271.

Lecture 6 出版バイアス

  1. Rosenthal R. The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychol Bull. 1979;86:638–641.
  2. 2 Greenland S, et al. Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations. Eur J Epidemiol. 2016;31:337-350. PMID: 27209009
  3. 3 Wasserstein RL, et al. The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose. The American Statistician. 2016;70:129-133.
  4. Holman CD, et al. A psychometric experiment in causal inference to estimate evidential weights used by epidemiologists. Epidemiology. 2001;12:246–255. PMID: 11246588

7 止瀉薬の科学的根拠

  1. Okubo Y, et al. Recent Prescription Patterns for Children With Acute Infectious Diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;68:13–16. PMID: 30074577
  2. Li ST, et al. Loperamide therapy for acute diarrhea in children: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e98. PMID: 17388664
  3. Owens JR, et al. Loperamide in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in early childhood. Report of a two centre, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1981;1:135–141. PMID: 6185060
  4. Kaplan MA, et al. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a liquid loperamide product versus placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Clin Pediatr(Phila). 1999;38:579–591. PMID: 10544864
  5. Kassem AS, et al. Loperamide in acute childhood diarrhoea: a double blind controlled trial. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1983;1:10–16. PMID: 6384353
  6. van Loon FP, et al. Double blind trial of loperamide for treating acute watery diarrhoea in expatriates in Bangladesh. Gut. 1989;30:492–495. PMID: 2653972
  7. King CK, et al. Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003:52:1–16. PMID: 14627948
  8. American Academy of Pediatrics. Managing Acute Gastroenteritis Among Children: Oral Rehydration, Maintenance, and Nutritional Therapy. Pediatrics. 2004;114:507.
  9. von Mühlendahl KE, et al. Loperamide-induced ileus. Lancet. 1980;1:209. PMID: 6101664
  10. World Gastroenterology Organisation. Practice guideline for acute diarrhea in adults and children: A global perspective. World Gastroenterol. Organ. Glob. Guidel. 2012:3–4.
  11. Vetel JM, et al. Comparison of racecadotril and loperamide in adults with acute diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13:21–26. PMID: 10646048
  12. Roge J, et al. The enkephalinase inhibitor, acetorphan, in acute diarrhoea: A double-blind, controlled clinical trial versus loperamide. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993;28:352–354. PMID: 8488368
  13. Eberlin M, et al. Racecadotril in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: a systematic, comprehensive review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Pediatr. 2018;18:124. PMID: 29614995
  14. Guarino A, et al. European society for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition/european society for pediatric infectious diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: Update 2014. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;59:132–152. PMID: 24739189
  15. 湯川蜻洋. 治療薬報. 1928;299・300:7–9.
  16. 弘瀬良廣. 治療薬報. 1927;270:9–14.
  17. Yen ZS, Lai MS. Best evidence topic report. Smectite for acute diarrhoea in children. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:65–66. PMID: 16373812
  18. Pérez-Gaxiola G, et al. Smectite for acute infectious diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;4:CD011526. PMID: 29693719
  19. Ziegenhagen DJ, et al. Traveler’s diarrhea in Turkey. Prospective randomized therapeutic comparison of charcoal versus tannin albuminate/ethacridine lactate. Med Klin(Munich). 1992;87:637–639. PMID: 1287425
  20. Goldman RD. Bismuth salicylate for diarrhea in children. Can Fam Physician. 2013;59:843–844. PMID: 23946025
  21. Figueroa-Quintanilla D, et al. A controlled trial of bismuth subsalicylate in infants with acute watery diarrheal disease. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1653–1658. PMID: 8487823
  22. Soriano-Brücher H, et al. Bismuth subsalicylate in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: a clinical study. Pediatrics. 1991;87:18–27. PMID: 1984613
  23. Chowdhury HR, et al. The efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate in the treatment of acute diarrhoea and the prevention of persistent diarrhoea. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:605–610. PMID: 11440090
  24. Snyder JD. Can bismuth improve the simple solution for diarrhea? N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1705–1706. PMID: 8487829
  25. Chauhan RK, et al. Berberine in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea. Indian J Pediatr. 1970;37:577–579. PMID: 5518228

Lecture 7 出版バイアスの統計学的な評価方法

  1. Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50:1088-1101. PMID: 7786990
  2. Egger M, et al. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315:629-634. PMID: 9310563

8 制吐剤の科学的根拠

  1. Fedorowicz Z, et al. Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011:CD005506. PMID: 21901699
  2. Van Eygen M, et al. A double-blind comparison of domperidone and metoclopramide suppositories in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in children. Postgrad Med J. 1979;55 suppl 1:36–39. PMID: 382153
  3. Dhondt F, et al. Domperidone suppositories: an effective antiemetic agent in diverse paediatric conditions. A multicenter trial. Curr Ther Res. 1978;24:912–923.
  4. Marchetti F, et al. Oral ondansetron versus domperidone for symptomatic treatment of vomiting during acute gastroenteritis in children: multicentre randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:15. PMID: 21310051
  5. Kita F, et al. Domperidone with ORT in the treatment of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in Japan: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2015;27: NP174–NP183. PMID: 22234829
  6. Cubeddu LX, et al. Antiemetic activity of ondansetron in acute gastroenteritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1997;11:185–191. PMID: 9042992
  7. Al-Ansari K, et al. Metoclopramide versus ondansetron for the treatment of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53:156–160. PMID: 21788756
  8. Epifanio M, et al. Bromopride, metoclopramide, or ondansetron for the treatment of vomiting in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr(Rio J). 2018;94:62–68. PMID: 28778685
  9. Lau Moon Lin M, et al. The Safety of Metoclopramide in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Drug Saf. 2016:39:675–687. PMID: 27003816

Lecture 8 用量反応メタ解析

  1. Li S, et al. Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302:179–188. PMID: 19584347
  2. Crippa A, et al. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:763–775. PMID: 25156996
  3. 3 GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators. Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392:1015-1035. PMID: 30146330

9 科学的根拠から見た小児のかぜと鼻洗い・鼻吸い

  1. Hutton N, et al. Effectiveness of an antihistamine-decongestant combination for young children with the common cold: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr. 1991;118:125-130. PMID: 1670783
  2. Tabary O, et al. Physiomer reduces the chemokine interleukin-8 production by activated human respiratory epithelial cells. Eur Respir J. 2001;18:661-666. PMID: 11716171
  3. Talbot AR, et al. Mucociliary clearance and buffered hypertonic saline solution. Laryngoscope. 1997;107:500-503. PMID: 9111380
  4. King D, et al. Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015:CD006821. PMID: 25892369
  5. Slapak I, et al. Efficacy of isotonic nasal wash(seawater)in the treatment and prevention of rhinitis in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:67-74. PMID: 18209140
  6. Alexandrino AS, et al. Caregivers’ education vs rhinopharyngeal clearance in children with upper respiratory infections: impact on children’s health outcomes. Eur J Pediatr. 2017;176:1375-1383. PMID: 28849302
  7. Jeffe JS, et al. Nasal saline irrigation in children: a study of compliance and tolerance. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:409-413. PMID: 22266167
  8. Pizzulli A, et al. The impact of nasal aspiration with an automatic device on upper and lower respiratory symptoms in wheezing children: a pilot case-control study. Ital J Pediatr. 2018;44:68. PMID: 29898751
  9. Montanari G, et al. Observational study on the performance of the Narhinel method(nasal aspirator and physiological saline solution)versus physiological saline solution in the prevention of recurrences of viral rhinitis and associated complications of the upper respiratory tract infections(URTI), with a special focus on acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis of the middle ear. Minerva Pediatr. 2010;62:9-16, 17-21. PMID: 20212394

Lecture 9 メタ解析を実際に行う

  1. Mangtani P, et al. Protection by BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:470-480. PMID: 24336911
  2. Poole C, Greenland S. Random-effects meta-analyses are not always conservative. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:469-475. PMID: 10472946

10 小児のかぜとロイコトリエン受容体拮抗薬の科学的根拠

  1. Zedan M, et al. Montelukast as an episodic modifier for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized trial. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31:147-153. PMID: 20406596
  2. Amirav I, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of montelukast for acute bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e1249-e1255. PMID: 18984650
  3. Liu F, et al. Leukotriene inhibitors for bronchiolitis in infants and young children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015:CD010636. PMID: 25773054
  4. Keskin O, et al. The effect of montelukast on early-life wheezing: A randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018;29:50-57. PMID: 29047178
  5. Bisgaard H, et al. Study of montelukast for the treatment of respiratory symptoms of post-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:854-860.PMID: 18583576
  6. Proesmans M, et al. Montelukast does not prevent reactive airway disease in young children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1830-1834. PMID: 19659463
  7. Kim CK, et al. A randomized intervention of montelukast for post-bronchiolitis: effect on eosinophil degranulation. J Pediatr. 2010;156:749-754. PMID: 20171653
  8. Nwokoro C, et al. Intermittent montelukast in children aged 10 months to 5 years with wheeze(WAIT trial): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2:796-803. PMID: 25212745
  9. Chang AB, et al. Leukotriene receptor antagonist for prolonged non-specific cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006:CD005602. PMID: 16625643

Lecture 10 異質性を考慮してメタ解析をする

  1. Mangtani P, et al. Protection by BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:470-480. PMID: 24336911

11 科学的根拠から見たかぜの自然経過

  1. Hay AD, Wilson AD. The natural history of acute cough in children aged 0 to 4 years in primary care: A systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52:401-409. PMID: 12014540
  2. Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE(UK). Respiratory tract infections - Antibiotic prescribing: prescribing of antibiotics for self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical Guidelines. 2008 PMID: 21698847
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Common Cold. Antibiotic prescribing and use in Doctor’s Offices.
    (page last reviewed: February 6, 2020:2020/3/10アクセス)
  4. Thompson M, et al. Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review. BMJ. 2013;347:f7027. PMID: 24335668
  5. Heikkinen T, Järvinen A. The common cold. Lancet. 2003;361:51-59. PMID: 12517470
  6. Wald ER, et al. Frequency and severity of infections in day care: three-year follow-up. J Pediatr. 1991;118:509-514. PMID: 2007922
  7. Ball TM, et al. Influence of attendance at day care on the common cold from birth through 13 years of age. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:121-126. PMID: 11814371
  8. Van den Bruel A, et al. Clinicians’gut feeling about serious infections in children: observational study. BMJ. 2012;345:e6144. PMID: 23015034
  9. 内閣府政府広報室. 「医療のかかり方・女性の健康に関する世論調査」の概要. 2019アクセス)

Lecture 11 システマティック・レビューとメタ解析はエビデンスピラミッドの頂点なのか?

  1. Concato J, et al. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1887-1892. PMID: 10861325
  2. Murad MH, et al. New evidence pyramid. Evid Based Med. 2016;21:125-127. PMID: 27339128



Lecture 2 仮説を立て,文献を検索する


文献の検索方法の有用なリソース(2020/3/4 アクセス)


6 整腸剤(プロバイオティクス)と小児の下痢の科学的根拠


Lecture 9 メタ解析を実際に行う

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